Since its inception, Ceramics has always been one of the most loved decorative art products for Vietnamese people. However, to create these wonderful works, it is necessary to blend function and art, between land, water and skillful hands of artisans. Let's Long Phuong Porcelain research about ceramic making process - 5 steps to create the best quality ceramic products.

Ceramic process to create quality ceramic products
Ceramic process to create quality ceramic products

1. Learn the steps of traditional handmade pottery

Ceramic making process consists of 5 main stages. Includes: Ground penetration; Ceramic bristles; decorative patterns; glazed and fired. It is the process of common quality ceramic products of the ceramic artists. However, in each stage, pottery is done differently depending on the skill level.

1.1 Step 1: Penetrate the soil – select and treat soil

The first step in the pottery making process is to choose the best materials, which are clay and kaolin. Next, the soil will be refined through many stages to get the best soil to be able to make pottery.

The first step has to be the best clay and kaolin ingredients
The first step has to be the best clay and kaolin ingredients

Clay after being mined is usually very solid, so it needs to be refined, including watering and then using thinly sliced ​​apricots. Then remove the impurities and knead thoroughly with your feet and then cover in large piles. This soil will be sliced ​​again and again to create a smooth, flexible consistency. This first stage is called ground penetration.

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1.2 Step 2: Polishing Ceramics – Shaping Ceramics

There are 3 main ceramic forming methods: Ceramic shaping on the turntable; Shape ceramics with molds and mold ceramics by hand. There are also products created by a combination of all three methods above. The specific methods are as follows:

1.2.1 Shaping on the turntable

With the method of shaping on the turntable, the soil needs to be carefully tempered and has a plasticity. Then the soil is moulded into a long rope as big as a wrist, the worker will sharpen each segment, circle the hollow in the middle of the turntable, and sharpen both hands. Not only need to use their hands, but artisans also need to use their feet to pedal rhythmically. All products big, small, thick and thin are controlled by two hands. In this technique there is no definite pattern, the size of each size is due to the eye, and there is a deviation but it is not significant. With this forming method, it is often used to produce large-sized ceramic products such as jars, vases, bowls, etc.

Skillful method of shaping on the turntable
Skillful method of shaping on the turntable

1.2.2 Shaping with templates

With the mold forming method commonly used to produce all kinds of product have a large volume such as: Bowl, dish, bowl…

Method of shaping by mold
Method of shaping by mold

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1.2.3 Shaping by hand molding

Hand moulding technique is often used in small details such as millet; ceramic tops, sacks, cans, jars, all kinds of animals, and statues...

Shaping by hand molding
Shaping by hand molding

1.3 Step 3: Decorate the pattern on the ceramic

The decoration is an important step that determines the aesthetics as well as the value in the ceramic production process. After shaping and drying, the artist will use a brush to draw, create patterns, increase the aesthetic art of each product. Ceramics are decorated with patterns by the following methods:

1.3.1 Paint on ceramic directly

Artists often use brushes to draw directly on the background with desired patterns and textures. This stage requires workers with extensive experience and extremely skillful hands. Therefore, each ceramic product is hand-painted directly on itself to form a separate work of art. In addition, workers can use methods such as painting colored enamel, threading or applying colored enamel to create unique products. The pattern painted before glazing is called underglaze and conversely the pattern painted after glazing is called over glaze.

Bàn tay điêu luyện vẽ hoa văn trực tiếp lên gốm.
Paint directly on ceramic

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Lately, in addition to the method painting on ceramic directly. Artisans also use the technique of painting on ceramic bones after going through the preliminary firing stage once or steaming the pattern by decorating according to the pre-printed drawings on decal paper, imported from abroad (popular). variable from China). However, this form is not considered a creative art in the traditional Vietnamese ceramic village, but only a decorative method.

1.3.2 Cutting and marking ceramic products

The product after shaping is dried in direct sunlight. When the product is hard, it will be shaved, smooth, and shaped like that. The details are shaped at this stage such as: ears, straps, flowers, floating animals, .... Marking is the method used mainly by artisans, followed by the process of firing and glazing ceramics.

1.3.3 Print pattern with mold

After forming the ceramic bone, the worker instead of drawing or carving on the ceramic body, they use a ceramic mold with negative patterns and then press it into a predetermined ceramic block. Finally, it is glazed and fired. The thin thickness of the enamel layer will create the effect, showing the preset patterns. Products that use this method of pattern printing are popular among brown flower glazes and celadon ceramics.

Những hoa văn đẹp trên gốm bằng khuôn.
Method of printing pattern by mold

1.4 Step 4: Enamel

After the decoration stage, the ceramic products will be pre-fired, i.e. fired for the first time, then covered with glaze and officially fired. Depending on the type, some do not go through the preheating stage before. For small-sized products, it is often dipped in enamel, while for larger-sized products, the method of flushing or glazing is often used.

Tráng men lên sản phẩm.
Enamel process

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1.4.1 Men's Goods Repair

The potter continues to refine the final product before putting it into the kiln. First of all, you have to look carefully at each product to see if there are any enamel defects, then you have to apply enamel on those positions, very picky little by little. Only then did they proceed to "probe". That is, shaving off the excess of yeast, this job is called "repairing enamel".

1.5 Step 5: Burning Ceramic Products

This is an important step that determines the success or failure of a batch of pottery. There are many types of kilns used for firing ceramics. But the most popular are toad ovens and gourds, recently box ovens.

Quy trình làm gốm. Đưa sản phẩm vào lò nung.
The process of firing ceramic products

Raw materials for heating ceramic kilns are wood, coal or gas. The firing time and firing temperature also vary depending on the type of kiln and the specific type of ceramic. Specifically: Terracotta ceramics at a temperature of 600 - 900 degrees C, brown ceramics from 1100 - 1200 degrees C, porous ceramics from 1200 - 1250 degrees C, white ceramics from 1250 - 1280 degrees C and porcelain from 1280 – 1350 degrees Celsius. Long Phuong porcelain products are fired twice at the highest temperature of 1380 degrees Celsius to produce white, smooth enamel products to reach the most sophisticated.

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2. Video about the stages of making porcelain products

Steps to make handmade ceramic

3. Long Phuong Ceramics – The top choice for quality

Long Phuong Ceramics currently, it is a manufacturer and distributor, providing the highest quality ceramic products today and has ceramic making process . With a variety of designs to suit each space, each requirement and top quality. We take pride in providing our customers with the highest quality products. Moreover, the affordable price, Long Phuong Porcelain conquers even the most demanding customers.

Công ty Long Phương về gốm sứ chất lượng
Long Phuong Company – Address of quality ceramics

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Address: Hap Linh Industrial Complex, Bac Ninh City




CEO of Long Phuong Group Joint Stock Company, with more than 20 years of exploration and research to obtain the best formulas and professional experience, Long Phuong Porcelain has produced more than 400 designs of all kinds of household porcelain, Significant contributions to Vietnam's ceramic industry.

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